Summary
The use of the GPS units will be the culminating activity for 5th grade students who will have prepared to find caches filled with “coins ” hidden on the school grounds. It will be the task of the students in each group to use the money found in each cache to create an equation using all the coins to match an answer found on a prepared ‘bingo’ card containing the solution to an equation. Each cache will have at least one possible equation known by the teacher. Students will write their equation on the ‘bingo’ board, return the cache and search for a new one.

The objectives of this lesson are
to strengthen numerical fluency and proficiency in all operations
to combine numbers, recognize patterns, engage in critical thinking and improve problem-solving skills
to demonstrate an understanding of the use of technological
devices (GPS) to solve a problem
to utilize the outdoor space around the school for education and
mild exercise

The time allotted for this lesson is approximately 4 40-minute class periods with the last period using the GPS units. During the first 3 periods and as a precursor to the actual GPS activity students will be expected to:

*Use their logins to access a subscription math program, First in Math, and complete Skill sets 3 and 4 both of which result in a minimum 2-step solution using any of the 4 operations to solve a problem.
*Use the First in Math program to complete the bonus game “Equal Pay”, an activity requiring students to “count out” coins and bills.

Access the site “Change Maker” (http://www.funbrain.com/cashreg/index.html) and after selecting ‘medium level’ and ‘U.S. currency’ learners will see that each problem has ‘amount of sale’ listed at the top of the screen followed by the ‘amount paid’. Students will determine the amount of change and how many of each bill or coin should be returned. After entering the correct amount on the screen they will look for the same amount on their ‘bingo’ board. Upon finding an amount that matches they will then write the equation used to arrive at that answer. (Ex: Q+Q+d+p= $0.61 or 25 +25+ 10+ 1 = $0.61). If a matching amount is not found they move on to a new problem. During 30-40 minutes students should finish at least two lines of problems.

Teaching strategies
Teachers should use an indirect approach in the early lessons, taking advantage of students’ interest in computers. Teachers can facilitate their learning with support and feedback making certain that all learners have some success.
During the last lesson the teacher will use a direct approach, modeling the use of the GPS using the projector and the Geo caching home page (http://www.geocaching.com/). This may result in additional time needed (to be determined by teacher).
Experiential Instruction will occur when students are outside using the GPS units and teachers are allowing students to experience the learning and later share with others.

Students will work in groups and all members will have a task which they will rotate with each new cache allowing all students to become familiar with the GPS units. Tasks should include: equation recorder, GPS manager, coordinate reader, and videographer to record the groups discussions and discoveries.

Closure
After a predetermined time period students will return to the classroom and share their results.

Assessment
Students should be assessed on their ability to create multistep equations that are accurate, their use of the GPS and their ability to collaborate with peers to solve problems.

Differentiating Instruction
First in Math and ‘Change Maker’ activities have levels for students of differing abilities. These levels should be determined for each student by the teacher.
The ‘bingo’ board each group will be using can be varied according the level of those in the group. An easier level would include a partial answer or each cache’s color would match a square on the board so students know at what answer they should arrive. A more advanced group could be required to write a word problem in addition to the solving the numeric equation.

Extensions:
Students use the video they recorded to post their own summary of the experience to the class website. They could use voiceover technology to briefly describe a part of the activity.
Students could create additional problems to be added to caches around the school grounds.
Students could create the caches, determining the coordinates to place them on school grounds.

• PA 6.2.3 Identify and compare money
• NCTM- Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships: express mathematical relationships using equations
• NETS
Creativity and innovation-Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology
• Communication and collaboration--Students contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.
• Technology Operations and Concepts- Students understand and use technology systems.
• 21st Century Skills
INFORMATION, MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY SKILLS-
ICT Literacy. Apply technology effectively- Use digital technologies (computers, PDAs,, media players, GPS, etc.) communication/networking tools and social networks appropriately to access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information to successfully function in a knowledge economy

The use of the GPS units will be the culminating activity for 5th grade students who will have prepared to find caches filled with “coins ” hidden on the school grounds. It will be the task of the students in each group to use the money found in each cache to create an equation using all the coins to match an answer found on a prepared ‘bingo’ card containing the solution to an equation. Each cache will have at least one possible equation known by the teacher. Students will write their equation on the ‘bingo’ board, return the cache and search for a new one.

The objectives of this lesson are

to strengthen numerical fluency and proficiency in all operations

to combine numbers, recognize patterns, engage in critical thinking and improve problem-solving skills

to demonstrate an understanding of the use of technological

devices (GPS) to solve a problem

to utilize the outdoor space around the school for education and

mild exercise

The time allotted for this lesson is approximately 4 40-minute class periods with the last period using the GPS units. During the first 3 periods and as a precursor to the actual GPS activity students will be expected to:

*Use their logins to access a subscription math program, First in Math, and complete Skill sets 3 and 4 both of which result in a minimum 2-step solution using any of the 4 operations to solve a problem.

*Use the First in Math program to complete the bonus game “Equal Pay”, an activity requiring students to “count out” coins and bills.

Teaching strategies

Teachers should use an indirect approach in the early lessons, taking advantage of students’ interest in computers. Teachers can facilitate their learning with support and feedback making certain that all learners have some success.

During the last lesson the teacher will use a direct approach, modeling the use of the GPS using the projector and the Geo caching home page (http://www.geocaching.com/). This may result in additional time needed (to be determined by teacher).

Experiential Instruction will occur when students are outside using the GPS units and teachers are allowing students to experience the learning and later share with others.

Students will work in groups and all members will have a task which they will rotate with each new cache allowing all students to become familiar with the GPS units. Tasks should include: equation recorder, GPS manager, coordinate reader, and videographer to record the groups discussions and discoveries.

Closure

After a predetermined time period students will return to the classroom and share their results.

Assessment

Students should be assessed on their ability to create multistep equations that are accurate, their use of the GPS and their ability to collaborate with peers to solve problems.

Differentiating Instruction

First in Math and ‘Change Maker’ activities have levels for students of differing abilities. These levels should be determined for each student by the teacher.

The ‘bingo’ board each group will be using can be varied according the level of those in the group. An easier level would include a partial answer or each cache’s color would match a square on the board so students know at what answer they should arrive. A more advanced group could be required to write a word problem in addition to the solving the numeric equation.

Extensions:

Students use the video they recorded to post their own summary of the experience to the class website. They could use voiceover technology to briefly describe a part of the activity.

Students could create additional problems to be added to caches around the school grounds.

Students could create the caches, determining the coordinates to place them on school grounds.

• PA 6.2.3 Identify and compare money

• NCTM- Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships: express mathematical relationships using equations

• NETS

Creativity and innovation-Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology

• Communication and collaboration--Students contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

• Technology Operations and Concepts- Students understand and use technology systems.

• 21st Century Skills

INFORMATION, MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY SKILLS-

ICT Literacy. Apply technology effectively- Use digital technologies (computers, PDAs,, media players, GPS, etc.) communication/networking tools and social networks appropriately to access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information to successfully function in a knowledge economy